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英国文学史复习资料.doc

英国文学史复习资料

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Review:TheDevelopmentofEnglishLiteratureFromtheacademicangle,Englishliteraturecanbedividedintosevenperiods:EarlyandMedievalEnglishliterature(中古文学)TheEnglishRenaissance(文艺复兴)ThethCndashThePeriodofRevolution(资产阶级革命)andRestoration(王权复辟)ThethCenturyndashTheAgeofEnlightenment(启蒙运动)Romanticism(浪漫主义)inEnglandinthesthalfofthethcenturyTheVictorianAge(维多利亚时期)ThethCenturyLiteraturendashModernismandPostModernism(现代和后现代主义)EarlyandMedievalEnglishliterature(thC))AngloSaxonPeriod()ThemainliterarycontributionofthisperiodistheEpic,anditsmasterpieceisthenationalepicTheSongofBeowulf,whichisalongpoemoflinesaboutthedeedsoftheTeutonic(条顿)heroBeowulfinthethcenturyItistheoldestpoemontheEnglishlanguageandtheoldestsurvivingepicinAngloSaxonliterature)TheAngloNormanPeriod()TheliteratureofthisperiodisgreatlyinfluencedbytheNormanconquestAftertheconquest,thecustomsandidealsknownaschivalrywasintroducedbytheNormansintoEnglandandcanbereflectedinliterature,suchastheknightlycode,theromanticinterestinwomen,tendernessandreverencepaidtoVirginMaryetcTheprevailingformofliteratureintheFeudalEnglandwasRomance(传奇骑士文学)ThemostfamousRomancewasSirGawainandtheGreenKnightThethCenturymdashThePeriodofRevolutionandRestorationThebourgeoisierevolutionagainstmonarchythePuritanAgeThegreatestrepresentativesaretheldquoThreeJohnsrdquo:JohnMilton,JohnDonne,therepresentativeoftheMetaphysicalSchoolandJohnBunyan,agreatprosewriterThethCenturyndashTheAgeofEnlightenment(启蒙运动)anexpressionofstruggleofthethenprogressiveclassofbourgeoisieagainstfeudalismInliterature,Classicism,orNeoclassicism,dominatedthiscenturyThemiddleofthiscenturyinEnglandseestheinceptionofanewliterarycurrentndashsentimentalismAttheturnofthethandthcenturies,PreRomanticismemergedRomanticism(浪漫主义)inEnglandinthesthalfofthethcenturyRomanticisminEnglandcameintobeinginthelatterhalfofthethcenturywithWilliamBlakeandRobertBurnsrepresentingthespiritofwhatisusuallycalledPreRomanticismWiththepublicationofLyricalBalladsbyWordsworthandColeridgein,RomanticismbegantobloominthehistoryofEnglishliteratureThetrendendedatthedeathofScottinThisisanageofpoetUnitEarlyandMedievalEnglishliterature(中古文学))AngloSaxon(盎格鲁撒克逊)Period()ThemainliterarycontributionofthisperiodistheEpic(史诗),anditsmasterpieceisthenationalepicTheSongofBeowulf(贝奥武甫),whichisalongpoemoflinesaboutthedeedsoftheTeutonic(条顿)heroBeowulfinthethcenturyItistheoldestpoemontheEnglishlanguageandtheoldestsurvivingepicinAngloSaxonliterature名词解释Epic:Alongnarrative(叙事诗)poemontheadventuresandgreatdeedsofheroesBeowulf:nationalepicoftheEnglishpeopleDenmark(丹麦)storyalliteration,metaphorsandunderstatements)TheAngloNorman(盎格鲁诺曼)Period()TheliteratureofthisperiodisgreatlyinfluencedbytheNormanconquest(诺曼底人对英格兰的军事征服)Aftertheconquest,thecustomsandidealsknownaschivalry(骑士精神)wasintroducedbytheNormansintoEnglandandcanbereflectedinliterature,suchastheknightlycode(骑士法典),theromanticinterestinwomen,tenderness(亲切)andreverence(崇敬)paidtoVirginMary(圣母玛丽亚)etcTheprevailing(流行的)formofliteratureintheFeudalEnglandwasRomance(传奇骑士文学)ThemostfamousRomancewasSirGawainandtheGreenKnight高文爵士和绿衣骑士GeoffreyChaucer()杰弗里乔叟)GeoffreyChaucer(mdash),aLondonerofbourgeois(资本家)origin,anoutstandingEnglishpoetbeforeShakespeareandldquothefatherofEnglishpoetryrdquoHisTheCanterburyTalesranksasoneofthegreatestpoeticworksinEnglishHealsocontributedimportantlyinthesecondhalfofthethcenturytothemanagementofpublicaffairsascourtier(朝臣),diplomat(外交官),andcivilservant(公务员)Butitishiswritingofpoetrythatmakeshimremembered)代表作:theCanterburyTales坎特伯雷的故事(英国文学史的开端)大致介绍:TheCanterburyTales,anunfinishedseriesofstoriespurporting(claimorpretend)tobetoldbyagroupofpilgrimsjourneyingfromLondontotheshrineofStThomasBecketandbackAmongthebandofpilgrimsareaknight,amonk,aprioress,aplowman,amiller,amerchant,aclerk,andthewifefromBathTheCanterburyTales,acollectionofstoriesinaframestory(框架故事),betweenandItisthestoryofagroupof()peoplewhotravelaspilgrims(朝圣者)toCanterbury(England)Thepilgrims,whocomefromalllayers(阶层)ofsociety,tellstoriestoeachothertokilltimewhiletheytraveltoCanterbury名词解释:aframestory(框架故事):Anarrativethatprovidestheframeworkwithinwhichanumberofdifferentstories,whichmayormaynotbeconnected,canbetold文学作品中一个故事套着一个故事的结构故事中的故事。如《天方夜谈》《坎特伯雷故事集》等。最初原型一般归溯到《十日谈》(BoccacciorsquosDecameron)(薄伽丘(意大利诗人)P)ldquoTheGeneralProloguerdquotoldusChaucerintendedthateachpilgrimshouldtelltwotalesonthewaytoCanterburyandtwotalesonthewaybackMorethanstoriesweresupposedtobetoldButChaucerhadactuallycompletedonlystories,withtwomoreexistinginfragmentsTwoofthetalesweretoldbyChaucerScholarsareuncertainabouttheorderofthetales,andTheCanterburyTaleshasbeenpasseddowninseveralhandwrittenmanuscripts大致内容:thepilgrimsarepeoplefromvariouspartsofEngland,representativesofvariouswalksoflifeandsocialgroups朝圣者都是来自英国的各地的人,代表着社会的各个不同阶层和社会团体小说特点:eachofthenarratorstellshistaleinapeculiarmanner,thusrevealinghisownviewsandcharacter这些叙述者以自己特色的方式讲述自己的故事无形中表明了各自的观点展示了各自的性格。小说观点:hebelievesintherightofmantoearthlyhappinessHeisanxioustoseemanfreedfromsuperstitions(迷信)andablindbeliefinfate(盲目地相信命运)他希望人们能从迷信和对命运的盲从中解脱出来。)HeroicCoupletPentameter(五步格诗):pentamdashGreekwordmeaningldquofiverdquo,apoeticlineconsistingofversefeetIambic(抑扬格):anunstressedsyllablefollowedbyastressedsyllableineachfootCouplet:twoconsecutivelinesofpoetrythatrhymeBlankVerse(无韵体素体诗):unrhymediambicpentameterBlankverseistheverseformusedinsomeofthegreatestEnglishpoetry,includingthatofWilliamShakespeareandJohnMilton名词解释HeroicCouplet(英雄偶句双韵体):~isaniambicpentametercoupletTheformwasintroducedintoEnglishbyChaucer,andwidelyusedsubsequently,reachingaheightofpopularityintheworksofAlexanderPope亚历山大middot蒲柏(英国诗人))ChaucerrsquosContributionsa)HeintroducedfromFrenchtheldquoheroiccoupletrdquotoEnglishpoetryb)HeisthefirstimportantpoettowriteinthecurrentEnglishlanguagec)Chaucerdidmuchinmakingthedialect(方言)ofLondonthefoundationformodernEnglishlanguageHeroicCoupletvsBlankVerseHeroicCoupletThefirstlinesAssoon|asAp|rilpier|cesto|therootThedrought|ofMarch|andbathes|eachbud|andshootThealternationbetweenstressedandunstressedsyllablesisregular,thewholelinecanbedividedintofivesuchdivisions,eachisaFootFoot:adivisionofalineinpoetry,inwhichthereisusuallyastrongbeat(节拍)andoneortwoweakeronesegBlankVerseIfyoucanlookintotheseedsoftime,Andsaywhichgrainwillgrowandwhichwillnot,SpeakthenmewhoneitherbegnorfearYourfavorsnoryourhatemdashMacbethbyShakespeareUnitTheEnglishRenaissanceTheperiodinEuropebetweenthethandthcenturiesDuringthisperiod,theclassicalartsandlearningwerediscoveredagainandwidelystudied,sothetermRenaissanceoriginallyindicatedarevivalofclassical(RomanandGreek)artsandlearningafterthedarkagesofmedievalobscurantism,italsomarkedthebeginningofbourgeoisrevolution(资产阶级革命)IntheRenaissanceperiod,scholarsandeducatorscalledthemselveshumanistsandbegantoemphasizethecapacitiesofthehumanmindandtheyheldtheirchiefinterestinmanrsquosvaluesandhisenvironmentanddoingsSohumanismbecamethekeynoteoftheEnglishRenaissanceRenaissanceLiteratureinEngland主要作者介绍)Poetry:ThomasWyatt(HeintroducedthesonnetintoEnglishliterature)PhilipSidney(Anoutstandinglyrical(抒情诗)andepicpoet)EdmundSpencer(Englishpoetwhoselongallegoricalpoem(寓言性浪漫史诗)TheFaerieQueene《仙后》isoneofthegreatestintheEnglishlanguageItwaswritteninwhatcametobecalledtheSpenserianstanza(斯宾塞诗体)Spenserianstanza(斯宾塞诗体):Aninelinestanzawiththefollowingrhyme(韵律)scheme:ababbcbccThefirsteightlinesarewritteniniambicpentameterThelastlineiswritteniniambichexameter(六步格诗))Drama:ChristopherMarlowe(ThegreatestpioneerofEnglishdramawhomadeblankversetheprincipalvehicleofexpressionindrama))Novels:JohnLyly(GreatpopularitywaswonbyhisnovelEupheus(《尤弗伊斯》)whichgaverisetoanaffectedstyleofcourtspeechcalledldquoeuphuismrdquo尤弗伊斯体绮丽体))EssaysProse:FrancisBacon(第一个散文家(essayist))UniversityWits大学才子派:AgroupofyoungElizabethanplaywrightswhohadstudiedattheuniversitiesofOxfordorCambridge例如:ChristopherMarloweJohnLylyWilliamShakespeare()Shakespeareisnotofanage,boralltimemdashBenJohnsonHecontributedsonnets,()plays,andlongnarrativepoemstotheliterarylegacyoftheworld)Oneofthemostremarkableplaywrightsandpoetstheworldhaseverknown)Inhislife,Shakespearersquosactivitiesasadramatistpoetactor,andproprietor(经营者),lasteduntiltheyearwhenheretiredfromthestageandreturnedtoStratfordHediedonAprilrd)TheThreePeriodsofLiteraryCareerst:comediesnd:tragediesFourGreatTragedies:Hamlet()Othello()KingLear()Macbeth()Hamblet:讲的是丹麦故事反映的是英国的事情主要人物:Claudius克劳迪斯死去国王的弟弟QueenGertrude乔特鲁得:王子的母亲Polonius波洛琉斯:爱说闲话的官员Ophelia奥菲利亚:官员的女儿Laertes雷欧提斯:官员的儿子rd:histories补充:Read:PPHamlet(ActScene)Soliloquy:aspeechmadebyanactor(独白)onthestagetorevealhisinnerworldbythinkingaloudSonnet(十四行诗))名词解释Sonnet:Afourteenlinelyricpoem,usuallywritteninrhymed(押韵的)iambicpentameter)ItoriginatedfromItalyThomasWyattintroducedittoEnglishinthethcentury)Sonnethastwotypes:atheItaliansonnet(orPetrarchansonnet,PetrarchisanItalianpoetinthethcentury)意式(彼特拉克式)十四行诗(ThePetrarchansonnet)的格式即包括一个八行节(octave)和一个六行节(sestet)韵脚按abbaabbacdecde。btheEnglishorShakespeareansonnet:莎士比亚十四行诗(TheShakespeareansonnet)的节律是五音步抑扬格。全诗包括三个四行组和一个两行组韵脚按ababcdcdefefgg排列称为ldquo莎士比亚式rdquoldquo伊丽莎白式rdquoldquo或英国式rdquo。FrancisBacon:十七世纪初英国的杰出散文家BaconisthefirstEnglishessayistA人物简介FrancisBacon,anEnglishphilosopher,statesman(政治家),scientist,lawyer,jurist(法学家)andauthorisarepresentativeoftheEnglishRenaissance,whobelongstoboththeworldsofphilosophyandliteratureAsaliteraturefigure,heplayedacentralroleinthedevelopmentofEnglishessaywhileasthefatherifEmpiricism(经验主义),helaidthefoundationformodernscienceinEnglandBaconisthefirstEnglishessayistInscientificinquiry,Baconproposedatheoryofscientificknowledgebasedonobservationandexperimentthatcametobeknownastheinductivemethodinductivemethod:toproceedfromparticularstogeneralprinciplesBmainworksTheAdvancementofLearning《学术的推进》(),NewInstrument《新工具》(),NewAtlantis《新大西岛》()andEssays《论说文集》()Homework:AccordingtoBacon,howstudiesmayldquoservefordelight,forornament,andforabilityrdquo WhatarethefunctionsoftherhetoricaldevicesusedinthesesentencesTranslatethemintoequivalentChineseStudiesservefordelight,forornament,andforability 读书足以(serve)怡情足以傅彩足以长才。Historiesmakemenwisepoetswittythemathematicssubtilenaturalphilosophydeepmoralgravelogicandrhetoricabletocontend史鉴使人明智诗歌使人巧慧数学使人精细自然科学使人深刻论理学使人庄重逻辑修辞之学使人善辨。读史使人明智读诗使人灵秀数学使人周密科学使人深刻论理学使人庄重逻辑修辞之学使人善辨。Theirchiefusefordelight,isinprivatenessandretiringforornament,isindiscourseandforability,isinthejudgmentanddispositionofbusiness其怡情也最见于独处幽居之时其傅彩也最见于高谈阔论之中其长才也最见于处世判事之际。人们独居或退隐的时候最能体会到读书的乐趣谈话的时候最能表现出读书的文雅判断和处理事务的时候最能发挥由读书而获得的能力。Somebooksaretobetasted,otherstobeswallowed,andsomefewtobechewedanddigestedthatis,somebooksaretobereadonlyinpartsotherstoberead,butnotcuriouslyandsomefewtobereadwholly,andwithdiligenceandattention书有可浅尝者有可吞食者少数则须咀嚼消化。换言之有只须读其部分者有只须大体涉猎者少数则须全读读时须全神贯注孜孜不倦OfStudies(P)PartThepurposeofreadingPartThemethodmeasures(Howtoread)PartTheeffectfunctionhomework:TheorganizationDiscussion:ThepurposeofreadingAppreciationtranslationUnitHistoricalBackgroundofthethCentury:Thethcenturywasoneofthemosttempestuous(暴乱的)periodsinEnglishhistoryItwasaperiodwhenabsolutemonarchy(君主制度)impeded阻碍thefurtherdevelopmentofcapitalism(资本主义)inEnglandandthebourgeoisie(资产阶级)couldnolongerbearthesway(统治)oflandednobilityThecontradictionsbetweenthefeudalsystemandthebourgeoisiehadreacheditspeakandresultedinarevolutionaryoutburstTheLiteraryCharacteristics:thePuritans(清教徒)believedinsimplicityoflife、disapprovedofthesonnetsandthelovepoetry、breakingupofoldideals清教徒崇尚俭朴的生活、拒绝十四行诗和爱情诗、与旧思想脱离。代表人物:JohnDonne约翰多恩JohnMilton约翰弥尔顿JohnBunyan约翰拜扬JohnDonne约翰多恩()isthemostoutstandingoftheEnglishMetaphysical(玄学派)Poetstodayandveryinfluentialuponmodernwritersathistime,Donnewasapreacher(牧师)famousforhismagnificentsermons(布道辞))MetaphysicalPoetry:ThepoetryofJohnDonneandotherseventeenthcenturypoetswhowroteinasimilarstyleMetaphysicalpoetryischaracterizedbyverbal(口头的)wit(巧智),ingenious(有独创性的)structure,irregularmeter(韵律),colloquiallanguage(通俗语),elaborateimagery,andadrawingtogetherofdissimilar(不同的)ideas)名词解释Conceit(奇喻):Akindofmetaphorthatmakesacomparisonbetweentwostartlinglydifferentthings)AValediction:ForbiddingMourning(P)Thespeakerusestheconceittocomparetheirinseparable(不可分割的)relationshiptothecompasseswhosetwolegsareseparatedonthetwodimensional(二维的)surface,yetarecombinedtogetherinthethirddimension(三维的)Theimageryofcompassesdemonstrates(展示)thatperfectloveisaunionofthebodyandthesoul,ortolovethebelovedbothphysicallyandspiritually)MajorWorksa)Earlyworks:SongsandSonnets(writtenbefore,lovepoems)egTheFlea《跳蚤》Song《歌》WomanrsquosConstancy《女人的忠贞》AValediction:ofWeeping《别离辞:谈哭泣》AValediction:ForbiddingMourningb)ReligiouspoemsandsermonsJohnMilton约翰弥尔顿OneofthegreatestpoetsoftheEnglishlanguage(poem诗歌blankverse))Milton#sliterarycareercanbegenerallydividedintothreeperiods:TheearlyperiodofpoeticworksThemiddleperiodofprosepamphlets(小册子)Thelastperiodofgreatprose)《ParadiseLost》失乐园(对于ParadiseLost需要知道它是blankverse写成的故事情节来自OldTestament《旧约全书》另外要知道此书theme和Satan的形象)ThecharacterofSatan:ldquoSatanisnotavillainrdquo撒旦不是坏人wethinkofSataneitherasanabstractconceptionassomeoneinwhomevilismixedwithgoodbutwhoisdoomedto(注定要)destruction(毁灭)bytheflaw(缺点)ofsleflove)、JohnBunyan约翰拜扬agreatprosewriter《PilgrimrsquosProgress》天路历程prose散文:PilgrimrsquosProgresswaswrittenasabookofreligiousinstructionsintheformofallegoryanddreamUnitTheliteratureofthethcentury(TheAgeofEnlightenment)TheliteratureofthethcenturyAfterthetempestuous(暴乱的)eventsofthethcentury,Englandenteredaperiodofacomparatively(比较地)peacefuldevelopmentWiththeadventofthethcentury,EnglandaswellasotherEuropeancountriessprangintolifeapublicmovementknownastheEnlightenment,which,onthewhole,wasanexpressionofthestruggleofthethenprogressive(改革论者)classofbourgeoisie,buəʒwɑ:#zi:n中产阶级(资产阶级)againstfeudalism(封建制度),thepurposeofwhichwastoenlighten(启蒙)thewholeworldwiththelightofmodernphilosophicalandartisticidealsNeoclassicism(新古典主义)WiththeintroductionoftheEnlightenmentMovementintoEngland,arevivalofinterestintheoldclassicalworkswasinfullswingThistendencyisknownasNeoclassicismAccordingtotheNeoclassicists,allformsofliteratureweretobemodeledaftertheclassicalworksoftheancientGreekandRomanwriters(Homer荷马,Virgil维吉尔,Horace贺拉斯,Ovid奥维德,etc)andthoseofthecontemporaryFrenchonesTheybelievedthattheartisticidealsshouldbeorder,logic,restrained(受抑制的)emotionandaccuracy名词解释NeoclassicismArevivalintheseventeenthandeighteenthcenturiesofclassicalstandardsofreason,order,balanceandharmonyinliteratureJohnDryden(屈莱顿)andAlexanderPope(亚历山大蒲柏)weremajorexponents(倡导者)oftheNeoclassicalschoolInthestpartofthecentury,JonathanSwift(乔纳森斯威夫特)wasthesupreme(最重要的)masterofthecurrentThesuprememastersintheepochofEnlightenmentinEnglandwere:)AlexanderPope:thegreatestpoetinthethcentury代表作:AnessayonCriticism《论批评》(,firststrikingsuccessasapoetandcritic)ThegreatestpoetinthethcAnessayonCriticism(,firststrikingsuccessasapoetandcritic)PopersquosHeroicCouplet:orororororALit|tlelear|ningis|adange|rousthing,DrinkdeeportastenotthePierianspring(ifyouwanttolearnsth,digdeepintotheheartofit)mdashmdashAnEssayonCriticism(PartII)Pierian:thespringinPieria(皮埃里亚希腊北部马其顿滨海区)onMtOlympus,sacredtotheMuses,Pierianspringisthereforethesourceofinspiration)RichardSteel理查德斯梯尔:mastersofprose,oressayists代表作:Twoinfluentialperiodicalpublications(杂志):TheTatler(Steel,mdash)《闲话报》TheSpeculator(mdash,bySteelandAddison)《旁观者》)SamuelJohnson塞缪尔middot约翰逊:Apoet,essayist,literarycritic,biographer(传记作者)andlexicographer(词典编纂者))DanielDefoe:Thegreatpioneer(先驱)oftheEnglishnovel,whoseRobinsonCrusoehasbeenvariouslyreadasanallegoryforthedevelopmentofcivilization,asamanifesto(宣言)ofeconomicindividualismandalsoasanexpressionofEuropeancolonia(殖民地)desires(P)Heisoftengiventhecreditforthediscoveryofthemodernnovel开创了现代派小说的先河。Thefeaturesofhisworks:heisantiromantic,antifeudalrealisticwriterHeoftenuselongsentenceswithoutstrongpausedtogivehisstyleanimmediatequliaty,buttheunitsofmeaningaresmallandclearwithfrequentrepetitionsothatthewritinggivesanimpressionofsimplelucidity明朗Theliterarycurrentsofthethcentury)Classicism,orNeoclassicismdominated(控制)thiscentury)ThemiddleofthiscenturyinEnglandseestheinception(起初)ofanewliterarycurrentndashsentimentalism(感情主义))Attheturnofthethandthcenturies,PreRomanticismemerged)Thebeginningsofthemodernnovel名词解释Classicism:Amovementortendencyinart,literature,ormusicthatreflectstheprinciplesmanifestedintheartofancientGreeceandRomeClassicismemphasizesthetraditionalandtheuniversal,andplacesvalueonreason,clarity,balanceandorderClassicism,withitsconcernforreasonanduniversalthemes,istraditionallyopposedtoRomanticism,whichisconcernedwithemotionsandpersonalthemes名词解释Sentimentalism:ThemiddleofthethcenturyinEnglandseestheinceptionofanewliterarycurrentmdashsentimentalism,whichcameintobeingasabitterdiscontent(不满)insocialrealityonthepartofcertainenlightenerswhofoundthepowerofreasontobeinsufficientindealingwithsocialinjustices,andtherefore,appealedtosentimentasameansofachievinghappinessandjusticeThetermisusedintwosensesinthestudyofliteratureThefirstisoverindulgence(放纵)inemotion,especiallytheconsciousefforttoinduce(引起)emotioninordertoanalyzeorenjoyitandthefailuretorestrainorevaluateemotionthroughtheexerciseofthejudgmentThesecondistheoptimisticoveremphasisonthegoodnessofhumanitySentimentalismisconcernedwiththedevelopmentofprimitivism(尚古主义)Inthefirstsensegivenabove,sentimentalismisfoundinthemelancholy(忧郁)verseoftheGraveyardSchoolJonathanSwift)Hewasthemostremarkablesatirist讽刺家inthethcenturywhocriticizedthenewbourgeoisaristocratic(贵族的)societyofhisagewithmercy宽容hesupportstheconservativeTory(保守派党员)。Inhepublishedtwopowerfulsatires(讽刺诗)oncorruption(腐败)inreligionandlearning:ATaleofaTub()andTheBattleoftheBooks(writtenin,publishedin),whichestablishedhisnameasasatiristGulliverrsquosTravelsGulliver#sTravels,writteninistheimmortalworkofJonathanSwiftThoughit#sbeenlabeledachildren#sbook,it#salsoagreatsatireofthetimesthatisprettymuchbeyondmostchildrenItshowsJonathan#sdesiretoencouragepeopletoreaddeeperandnottakethingsforgranted:readerswhopaidattentioncouldmatchallofGulliver#stalltaleswithcurrenteventsandlongtermsocialproblemsThevoyageinLilliputInthefirstpart,thenarrator☻,LemuelGulliver,asurgeononamerchantship,relateshisshipwrecktotheislandofLilliput,theinhabitantsofwhicharesixincheshigh,witheverythingontheislandbeingintheproportionofoneinchtoonefootascomparedwiththingsweknowofOwingtothisdiminutivescale,theaggressivenessoftheinhabitantsaresatirizedinthedescriptionofthewearersofhighheelsandlowheels,ofthecontroversyonthequestionwhethereggsshouldbebrokenatthebigorsmallend,andthewarwiththeirneighborsacrossthechannelThevoyageinBrobdingnagInthesecondpart,GulliverisaccidentallyleftashoreonBrobdingnag,wheretheinhabitantsareassteeplesandeverythingelseisinproportionThevoyageintheflyingislandofLaputan拉普他岛(一小说中的飞行浮岛)ThethirdpartisoccupiedwithavisittotheflyingislandoflaputaHerethesatireisdirectedagainstphilosophers,menofscience,historians,andprojectorsThevoyageinHouyhnhnmsn慧骃国(格列佛游记中的国家之一)具有人类理性的马匹ThispartdescribesthecountryoftheHouyhnhnms,orhorsesendowedwithreasonHerebrutalityoftheyahoos,beastsintheshapeofmenissatirizedThelackofreasonwillmakehumansinferiorastheYahoos,controlledbyanimalswithintelligence)MainWorksTheBattleoftheBooks《书的战争》(thefirstnotablework)TheTaleofaTub《一个木桶的故事》(isasatireonreligion)GulliverrsquosTravels《格

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